Category Archives: Maths

Philadelphia Soul helps GCSE Maths

Billy360 Degrees Of Billy Paul was one of the classic Philadelphia soul albums in the early 1970’s. It features the famous Gamble and Huff composition “Me and Mrs Jones”.  Billy went on to record “Let Em In”, one of the few occasions, like Joe Cocker with a Little Help from My Friends, where the cover is arguably better than the original by a Beatle.

To be pedantic, Billy’s face only appears to be rotating 180°, nonetheless it is a classic album cover, and 360° features of course throughout GCSE Maths, in “bearings” questions, circular geometry, symmetry and segment analysis.

A typical foundation level question might be:

In the shape above, where is the line of symmetry?  Answer is a line, drawn vertically down the middle.

Then a supplementary question about symmetry for higher level might be along the lines of:  

If we then assume there is fourth hidden face at the back, and it is a 3-dimensional model, and you look down on it from the top, how many lines of symmetry are there? Answer:  4

And what is the order of rotational symmetry? Answer: 4 because there are 4 points through a rotation of 360° where the shape would look identical.

Final;ly a typical mid-level higher tier geometry question featuring 360° would be:

A circle has a radius of 3cm and a sector is cut out with angle 60°. Find the exact area of the remaining shape, leaving pi in the answer.

Ans. The remaining shape must be a large sector of angle 360 less 60 = 300°.  It’s area must be
be  (300   x  pi   x  3²) / 360   = ( 5 pi  x  9)  / 6  =  15pi / 2  cm².

The Mathemateer is a very sad person who must get out more. Everywhere he gos he sees Maths questions!

Life of Pi – Maths makes you cool!

The Life of Pi – Maths makes you cool!

Watching The Life of Pi film again recently.  Most people (OK 99.9%) of people remember the tiger, but the Mathemateer was most struck by the scene in which young Piscine Patel, tired of mockery, jumps up and announces his nickname is Pi, and what’s more can recite it to many decimal places. He writes 3.14159 …etc to many hundreds of decimal places on the board and achieves instant stardom.

King the tiger as Richard Parker, with Suraj Sharma as Pi, in Ang Lee's Life of Pi.

Pi features in many GCSE Maths questions in formulae and it is really important for pupils to know which formulae are given in the formula sheet (for instance the volumes of spheres and cones) and which are not (quite rightly the formulae for a circle’s area and perimeter are not).


A typical higher level question might ask this:

In a full, tightly packed golf ball box there are two golf balls. What % of the volume of the box is occupied by the golf balls?

At first you think, we are not given any dimensions, how on earth can we solve this? The trick as you will increasingly see in the new syllabus is to think about a problem laterally and say, “Ok let’s call the radius r, see what happens, and start doing some calculations”. You will soon find that the volume of the box is 16 r³, while the volume of the two spheres is 8 pi r³/3 and a quick division gives you an answer of 52.4% because the “r” terms cancel out.

And finally, one more thing to remember. pi is an irrational number, which means it cannot be expressed as a whole number nor even a fraction. In fact it goes on forever, which is why Piscine is such a hero! And why it is used in “express to 4 significant figures” questions! Or why, if a GCSE question’s answer involves pi, and says “ leave as an exact answer” the pupil has to simply leave pi in the answer rather than try to work out the never ending, inexact, result.  “Exam management” tips like this win points!